Introduction To Lipo Batteries
What are LiPo batteries and why are they so popular in the RC world?
LiPo batteries (short for Lithium Polymer) are a type of rechargeable battery that has taken the electric RC world by storm, especially for planes and helicopters. They are the main reason electric flight is now a very viable option over fuel powered models.
When compared to their old NiCd/NiHm counterparts, RC LiPo batteries have three main things going for them that make them the perfect battery choice for RC flight, all other RC hobbies as well as power tools or portable electronic equipment.
RC LiPo batteries are light weight and can be made in almost any shape and size.
RC LiPo batteries have large capacities, meaning they hold lots of power in a small package.
RC LiPo batteries have high discharge rates to power the most demanding electrics.
These benefits are important in any function, but for RC airplanes and helicopters they are the reason electric flight has become so popular. Electric cars and boats have been around for decades, it wasn't till LiPo battery technology arrived on the scene, that electric planes and helicopters started showing up and are rivaling nitro power in terms of performance.
There are a few down sides with RC LiPo batteries however; once again proving there is no perfect solution.
Safety issues - because of the volatile electrolyte used in LiPo's, they can catch fire or explode.
RC LiPo batteries require unique and proper care if they are going to last for any length of time more so than any other battery technology. Charging, discharging, and storage all affect the lifespan. Get this wrong and a LiPo battery is garbage in as little as one mistake.
LiPo RC Battery Ratings
What do the ratings mean? Specifically voltage and capacity. These are the two main numbers you will need when going battery shopping. There is a third number you will also need to be aware of which we will cover in just a bit.
Voltage or "S" Rating
Unlike conventional NiCad or NiHm battery cells that have a voltage of 1.2 volts per cell, LiPo battery cells are rated at 3.7 volts per cell and 4.2 volts when fully charged. The benefit here is fewer cells can be used to make up a battery pack and in some cases on smaller micro sized RC aircraft like Blade mCX's, mSR, or 120 SR one 3.7 volt cell is all that is needed to power the model.
Other than the smallest of electric RC models, RC LiPo battery packs will have at least two or more cells hooked up in series to provide higher voltages. For larger RC models that number can be as high as 6 cells and even more for larger birds or HV (high voltage) applications.
Here is a list of LiPo RC battery pack voltages with cell counts most beginners will be using;
3.7 volt battery = 1 cell x 3.7 volts (1S)
7.4 volt battery = 2 cells x 3.7 volts (2S)
11.1 volt battery = 3 cells x 3.7 volts (3S)
14.8 volt battery = 4 cells x 3.7 volts (4S)
18.5 volt battery = 5 cells x 3.7 volts (5S)
22.2 volt battery = 6 cells x 3.7 volts (6S)
If you are wondering what the number in parenthesis means, it is a way the battery manufactures indicate how my cells hooked in series "S" the battery pack contains.
Battery packs can also be wired in parallel to increase the capacity. This is indicated by a number followed by a "P". Example: 3S2P would indicate 2 x three celled series packs hooked up in parallel to double the capacity.
Capacity or mah rating
Capacity indicates how much power the battery pack can hold and is indicated in milliamp hours (mAh). This is a way of showing how much load or drain (measured in milliamps) can be put on the battery for 1 hour at which time the battery will be fully discharged.
For example a RC LiPo battery that is rated at 1000 mAh would be completely discharged in one hour with a 1000 milliamp load placed on it. If this same battery had a 500 milliamp load placed on it, it would take 2 hours to drain down. If the load was increased to around 15,000 milliamps (15 amps) a very common current drain in a 400 sized RC helicopter while hovering, the time to drain the battery would be only about 4 minutes.
As you can see, for a RC model with that kind of current draw, it would be very advantageous to use a larger capacity battery pack such as a 2000 mAh pack or even higher. This larger pack used with a 15 amp draw would double the time to about 8 minute till the pack was discharged.
The main thing to get out of this is if you want more running time; increase the capacity of your battery pack. Unlike voltage, capacity can be changed around to give you more or less running time. Of course because of size restrictions and weight you have to stay within a certain battery capacity range seeing that the more capacity a battery pack has, the larger and heavier it will be.
Discharge Rate or "C" Rating
This is probably the single most over rated and miss understood of all battery ratings. Discharge rate is simply how fast a battery can be discharged safely. The faster the ions can flow from anode to cathode in a battery will indicate the discharge rate. In the RC LiPo battery world it is called the "C" rating. What does it mean?
A battery with a discharge rating of 10C would discharge it at a rate 10 times more than the capacity of the pack, a 15C pack = 15 times more, a 20C pack = 20 times more, and so on.
Let's use our 1000 mAh battery as an example. If it was rated at 10C that would mean you could pull a maximum sustained load up to 10,000 milliamps or 10 amps off that battery (10 x 1000 milliamps = 10,000 milliamps or 10 amps). From a time stand point, this equals 166 mA of draw a minute so the 1000 mAh pack would be exhausted in about 6 minutes.
This is calculated by first determining the mA per minute of the pack. 1000 mAh divided by 60 minutes = 16.6 mA's per minute. You then multiply that number by the C rating (10 in this case) = 166 mA of draw per minute divided into the packs capacity (1000 mA) = 6.02 minutes.
How about a 20C rating on a 2000 mAh battery? 20 x 2000 = 40,000 milliamps or 40 amps. Time wise, a 40 amp draw on this pack would exhaust it in about 3 minutes (2000/60= 33.3 mA minutes multiplied by 20c = 666 mA per minute - divided into the packs capacity of 2000 mA = 3 minutes). As you can see, that is a pretty short running time and unless you are drawing the maximum power for the entire flight, it is unlikely you would ever come close to those numbers.
Most RC LiPo Battery packs will show the continuous C rating and some also indicating a burst rating as well. The burst rating indicates the battery discharge rate for short bursts of extended power. An example might be something like "Discharge rate = 20C Continuous / 40C Bursts".
The higher the "C" rating, usually the more expensive the battery. Depending on what application you are using the battery for this is where you could save some money by understanding all the ratings on a Lipo battery. Getting a high discharge rated pack when there is no way you could possibly pull the full amount of power is not required, but it won't hurt either. The most important thing is you can't go with too low a discharge "C" rating or you will damage your battery and possibly you're ESC (electronic speed control).
So how do you know what "C" rating to get when purchasing your LiPo RC Battery Pack? The easy answer most will give is to get the largest C rating you can. This advice is fine if money is not an object, but for most folks, especially beginners and intermediate RC enthusiasts stretching your RC battery budget by purchasing lower "C" rated packs so you can get a few extra packs makes much more sense.
Spending $100 on 30c 5000 mah Lipo may be a little over the top if all you are using it for is running a stock motor or bashing around the back yard. Understanding these ratings will ensure you get the best Lipo battery for your needs and ultimately saving you money and possible headaches.
All this said, RC LiPo packs are coming down in price all the time. If you find a 30C pack for the same price as a 20C (when that is all you need), go for the 30C pack. It will run cooler and most likely last a little longer. Like most things, pushing a Lipo pack hard close to its limits will wear it out and reduce its lifespan. Having wiggle room on the high side will ensure that this won't happen.
Lastly feel or take a temperature reading of your packs after running them. Sometimes just because a pack says it is rated at 20C doesn't necessary mean it is in real world applications since nothing runs at 100% efficiency. On top of that, as packs age the internal resistance gets higher making them run warmer.
The general rule is if you can't comfortably hold a LiPo pack tightly in your hand after using it, it's too hot. This equates to anything higher than about 60C. But the general rule of thumb amongst hobby enthusiasts is no higher than 50C is safe. Therefore if you find your packs are getting warmer than this, it's a good bet you should consider moving up to a higher discharge rating for your next LiPo pack.
Another rating? Yes, the first 3 are industry standards and how the battery packs are packaged, marketed and ultimately priced.
Internal resistance is one of the best ways to monitor your RC LiPo batteries condition. As the battery gets older the internal resistance increases. Most decent higher discharge rated LiPo cells will have roughly 2 to 6 milliohms (0.002 to 0.006 ohms) of internal resistance when brand new. To calculate the total internal resistance of a series wired pack, you would then add these numbers together so a 4S pack with each cell having 4 milliohms of resistance will show a total internal resistance of about 16 milliohms (0.016 ohms).
As I mentioned, as battery packs ages, the internal resistance goes up and the warmer they run. Lower discharge rated packs will generally have higher internal resistance readings. It is not unusual to measure internal resistance numbers in the region of 200 milliohms on tiny 10C park flyer LiPo packs when they are brand new for example.
How do you measure internal resistance? This is where good computerized chargers like the iCharger come into play. With the iCharger you can measure the internal resistance of each cell as well as the overall battery pack.
Charging RC LiPo Batteries
Charging RC LiPo Batteries is a topic in itself. LiPo's and Li-Ion batteries obviously have some very different characteristics from conventional rechargeable battery types. Therefore, charging them correctly with a charger specifically designed for LiPo batteries is critical to both the lifespan of the LiPo battery pack as well as your safety.
Maximum Charge Voltage and Current
A 3.7 volt RC LiPo battery cell is 100% charged when it reaches 4.2 volts. Charging it past that will destroy the battery cell and possibly cause it to catch fire. This is very important to note and keep in mind at all times. A computerized charger will stop the charge process when the battery reaches 4.2 per cell. A balanced computerized charger will do this for each individual cell.
It is critical that you use a charger specified for Li-Po batteries and select the correct voltage or cell count when charging your RC LiPo batteries if you are using a computerized charger. If you have a 2 cell (2S) pack you must select 7.4 volts or 2 cells on your charger. If you selected 11.1V (a 3S pack) by mistake and tried to charge your 2S pack, the pack will be destroyed and most likely catch fire.
Most good RC LiPo battery chargers will use the constant current / constant voltage charging method (cc/cv). What this means is that a constant current is applied to the battery during the first part of the charge cycle. As the battery voltage closes in on the 100% charge voltage, the charger will automatically start reducing the charge current and then apply a constant voltage. The charger will stop charging when the 100% charge voltage of the battery pack equalizes with chargers constant voltage setting (4.2 volts per cell) at this time, the charge cycle is completed. Going past that, even to 4.21 volts will shorten battery life.
RC LiPo Battery Charging Current
Selecting the correct charge current is also critical when charging RC LiPo battery packs. The golden rule here has traditionally been to "never charge a LiPo or Li-Ion pack greater than 1 times its capacity (1C)".
For example a 2000 mAh pack, would be charged at a maximum charge current of 2000 mA or 2.0 amps.
But times have changing and most battery manufacturers specify their own charging "C" current. With most LiPo experts feeling that you can safely charge at a 2C or even 3C rate on quality packs that have a discharge rating of at least 20C or more, with little effect on the overall life expectancy of the pack as long as you have a good charger with a good balancing system.
Once again, the three main things that shorten LiPo battery life are:
LiPo Battery Balancing
What is balancing and why is it important?
As mentioned each cell in a Lipo battery pack is 4.2 volts when charged (3.7 volts normally). Balancing is required on any LiPo battery pack that has more than one cell since the charger can't identify from different cells and know if one might be overcharged even though the total voltage of the pack indicates otherwise. For example let's look at a 3 cell LiPo battery pack (three LiPo cells hooked in series or 3S).
This would be an 11.1 volt battery pack (3.7 volts per cell x 3 = 11.1 volts). The 100% charge voltage of this LiPo pack = 12.6 volts (4.2 volts x 3 = 12.6 volts). Our trusty charger set up for an 11.1 volt RC LiPo battery pack will then stop charging at 12.6 volts, simple right?
Well what would happen if one of those three cells is charging a bit faster than the other two? There could be two cells at only 4.1 volts and the one that is charging at bit faster could be getting overcharged up to 4.4 volts before the charger stops charging at 12.6 volts. That would ultimately damage to that one cell and even perhaps catch on fire.
This is an extreme example and that kind of voltage difference between cells is unlikely with a healthy pack, but even a 0.1 (100 mV) voltage difference between cells can cause issues and damage over time.
On the other end of the spectrum is if there is one cell in the pack that is not reaching full charge when the pack is charged and then gets discharged below 3.0 volts (even though the 3 cell battery pack is indicating a voltage of 9 volts or higher), this can cause you problems too.
Balancing ensures all cells are always within about 0.01-0.03 volts per cell. This means that over charging or discharging of one or more cells won't ruin your battery pack, or worse become a safety issue from overcharging a cell.
This can be done either by having a cell balancer work alongside your charger or by using a computerized charger with built in balance function.
How this works is that the charger (or balancer) will check each cell in a Lipo battery pack as it is charging/ discharging and adjust the voltage so they charge/discharge equally and end with the same voltage.
I.e. each cell in a 3 cell pack would be 4.2 volts, totaling 12.6 volts. Instead of one cell charging to say 4.15, another 4.2 and the third 4.25, still totaling 12.6 volts. As far as the (conventional non balance) charger is concerned it has reached the cutoff voltage of 12.6 volts and it is done. But what you don't know is that it is damaging your packs every time it is charging and discharging!
Each Lipo battery pack will have a main charge / discharge connector as well as a separate balance connector.
Balancing connectors currently come in four different configurations (for the most part) and it is important to know which one your balancing charger, stand alone balancer, or balance board supports so you choose the correct connector type when purchasing your RC LiPo battery.
JST XH Balancing Connector
This is the most common balancing connector type. Used on most batteries, chargers and balance boards.
Thunder Power Balancing Connector
Used on Thunder Power products.
Polyquest Balancing Connector
Used On: Polyquest, E-tec, True RC, Extreme Power, Impulse, Enermax, Hyperion, Poly RC, Xcite, Fliton, and a few others.
JST-EH Balancing Connector
These are probably the least common type of balancing connector, but you will find them on a few big name battery brands such as: Kokam, Graupner, Core, and older Vampower battery packs.
You can get converters/adapters to use with different balancing connector configurations, but it is much easier and less costly if you just make sure you get the correct connectros that works with your charger when you purchase your LiPo battery.
Main Power Connectors
Once again there are several out there depending on your power handling requirements and own personal preference. Getting one type and sticking with it is the easiest way to go since all your connectors will be the same as will your charging connectors.
JST Battery Connector
This is a small power connector rated for up to 5 amps of continuous load. It is used on smaller battery packs (usually under 1500 mAh) for powering small park fliers and micro electric helis, or for powering on board electronics (receiver, servos, gyros, governors, etc.) in higher end models with dedicated RX packs.
Deans Ultra Battery Connector
These are a very popular connector type (also called "T" connectors) with a very loyal following, which unfortunately has driven the price up & made them one of the most expensive connectors around. They are rated for up to 50 amps of continuous load.
EC3 Battery Connector
EC3's are becoming very popular as they use true "bullet style" connection pins and are rated for up to 60 amps of continuous load. Most will agree bullet pins make for the best possible connection when dealing with high current applications due to a larger surface contact area.
EC5 Battery Connector
These are a longer version of the EC3 and because the bullet pins are longer (5mm) they have an even greater surface area for contact. EC5's are rated for up to 120 amps of continuous load. Perfect for large 1/4 scale electrics and 700 size electric helis.
XT60 LiPo Battery Connector
XT-60 connectors are getting more and more popular due to the very good pricing and performance. Like the EC3 connectors they use gold plated bullet pins and have a slightly higher 65 amp current rating. Made with high temperature nylon, they don't melt when soldering if you get a little carried away.
These are lower amperage connectors once very popular, especially with the electric RC car, truck, and boats, but since high amp LiPo's have entered the scene, Tamiya plugs are used less and less. You will still find them on entry level RC hobby products.
As the name suggests, Traxxas battery connectors are used exclusively on electric Traxxas RC vehicles/boats but can be fit to any high current application up to about 100 amps.
Sermos Power Poles
These are our preferred connectors. As they are very easy to plug and unplug, have high current rating, low resistance and are non gender. Meaning you can make as many male or female plugs out of any pack. Which is a lot easier than buying pairs and using only one all the time!
In the end, it is personal preference and more dependent on what type of connector your ESC comes with or your current handling requirements so you purchase the correct connector or choose a battery that already comes with the right connector.
Many RC LiPo batteries actually don't come with any main connector type (just the two wire ends insulated with heat shrink). If you purchase a battery like that, make sure you purchase the correct main connector type and ensure your soldering skills are up to the task. Otherwise, better search for a battery that comes with the correct connector type already in place.
There are plenty of warning on safety measures needed when charging Lipo batteries. As mentioned Lipo batteries are made from volatile materials and if not looked after and charged / discharged at correct "C" rating as well as charge voltage, they can heat up and in some cases explode.
Watch a video of what happens to a Lipo battery pack when charged incorrectly
Heat and LiPo's are usually a bad combination, sometimes very very bad. Resulting in explosions or fire. There are plenty of videos on YouTube with LiPo packs exploding and releasing toxic gases. You should always look after you pack. Charge them in suitable condition and never over charge over discharge or allow them to heat up. Using a good computerized charger with a temperature probe and temperature cutoff settings is a good way to monitor your battery packs temperature as well.
Charge multi celled LiPo's (7.4 volt or higher) in fire resistant. Fire proof bags are also a great item to get and weigh much less for easy transport and storage.
Leave Lipo battery pack for at least 15 minutes after use to let it cool down before charging it. This prolongs the life of the LiPo and prevents possible overheating and damage.
Never leave the house or leave a Lipo unattended when charging.
Installing an inexpensive smoke detector by the are you charge your batteries.
The other thing that will heat a pack up fast is if you push it right down to 3.0 volts per cell under load. Even if you have a 40C pack and can only draw half that amount, if you push it hard right down to 3 volts per cell, it will become very hot and will shorten its life substantially.
Another good rule to follow is the "80% rule". This simply means that you should never discharge a LiPo pack down past 80% of its capacity to be safe. For example, if you have a 2000 mAh LiPo pack, you should never draw more than 1600 mAh out of the pack (80% x 2000). This is assuming a healthy pack as well that has the full 2000 mAh capacity (as packs age, their capacity drops).
This again is where computerized chargers pay for themselves many times over so you can see how much capacity the battery takes allowing you to adjust your running times accordingly to stay within that 80% rule to get the most life out of your pack.
Breaking In RC LiPo Batteries
Breaking in a new LiPo pack is a good practice, even though there is mixed opinion on whether you have to do this. Just like a new engine, not pushing your new LiPo to the maximum limits the first time out may give it added life and performance over the years. The general break in method is very simple; For the first few uses (perhaps 4 or 5), don't trash the pack, keep the charge rates low (1C or lower), and don't discharge down past 50% of the battery's capacity.
RC LiPo Battery Storage
Now that we have covered how a LiPo battery works, the safety concerns, what to look for when purchasing one, how to charge and balance one and why it's important, it's time to cover another area that many people seem to miss. Storage!
How a LiPo's battery pack is stored between uses will greatly affect their life span. As mentioned, a LiPo cell that drops below 3 volts under load is almost always & irreversibly damaged (reduced capacity or total inability to accept a charge). 3 volts under load is generally equates to about 3.5 volts open circuit resting voltage, if your batteries are stored for any period of time after you use them at close to that magic 3.5 volt per cell number, you run that risk.
As batteries sit, they will naturally self discharge. LiPo's are actually very good in this respect and self discharge much slower than most other rechargeable battery types, but they still do loose voltage as they sit. If you leave them for a number of weeks or months at close to 3.5 volts per cell, chances are they will drop below the 3 volt threshold and could be damaged.
You must store them charged, but not fully charged either. Basically, the speed at which a LiPo pack ages (during storage) is based on both storage temperature and state of charge.
For optimum battery life, store your RC LiPo batteries at room temperature and at about 40-60% charged. That equates to around 3.85 volts per cell (open terminal resting voltage). A good computerized charger will have a setting where you can charge you pack for storage, specifying the % of the battery capacity you would like to charge it to.
That's All She Wrote
That's about it… There are some great resources on batteries online and notably at the Battery University. You may also have a different opinion about some of these facts and figures stated in this article. This is based on our personal experience as well as a lot of trial and error. If you feel there is something you strongly disagree with, we would love to hear from you!